There are three basic type of Cardiac Surgeries.Those are:
Open heart surgery:
This is a surgery in which the patient’s chest is opened and surgery is performed on the heart. The term “open” refers to the chest, not to the heart itself. The heart may or may not be opened depending on the particular type of surgery. Surgeons realized the limitations of hypothermia – complex intracardiac repairs take more time and the patient needs blood flow to the body (and particularly the brain); the patient needs the function of the heart and lungs provided by an artificial method, hence the term cardiopulmonary bypass.
Modern beating-heart surgery:
Since the 1990s, surgeons have begun to perform “off-pump bypass surgery” – coronary artery bypass surgery without the aforementioned cardiopulmonary bypass. In these operations, the heart is beating during surgery, but is stabilized to provide an almost still work area. Some researchers believe this approach results in fewer post-operative complications (such as postperfusion syndrome) and better overall results (study results are controversial as of 2007, the surgeon’s preference and hospital results still play a major role).
Minimally invasive surgery
A new form of heart surgery that has grown in popularity is robot-assisted heart surgery. This is where a machine is used to perform surgery while being controlled by the heart surgeon. The main advantage to this is the size of the incision made in the patient. Instead of an incision being at least big enough for the surgeon to put his hands inside, it does not have to be bigger than 3 small holes for the robot’s much smaller hands to get through. Also, a major advantage to the robot is the recovery time of the patient, instead of months of recovery time, some patients have recovered and resumed playing athletics in a matter of weeks