India Cardiac Surgery Site is associated with experienced cardiologists to deliver the perfect treatment and recuperative plan. Before the surgery, we will educate the patient with every fact involved in surgery and maintain the transparency in procedure, facilities and the related costs. We provide quality services and also assists with arrangements by keeping the concerns of the international patients in mind, providing you the utmost care and professionalism.

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  1. General Anatomy:

The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). The blood passes through a valve before leaving each chamber of the heart. The valves prevent the backward flow of the blood. Valves are actually flaps or leaflets which act as one-way inlets for the blood coming into a ventricle and one-way outlets for the blood leaving a ventricle. The normal valves have three flaps, except the mitral valve that has only two flaps.

The four heart valves include:

      1. Tricuspid valve: It is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
      2. Pulmonary valve: It is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
      3. Mitral valve: This valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
      4. Aortic valve: It is located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Check out the Patient Testimonial, where the patient shares about their success stories from treatments through India Cardiac Surgery Consultants.

    1. Classification: There are total four valves: aortic valve, mitral valve, tricuspid valve and pulmonary valve. The aortic and mitral valves are termed as left heart disease while the tricuspid and pulmonary are termed as right heart disease.


Valve involvedStenotic diseaseInsufficiency/regurgitation disease
Aortic valveAortic valve stenosisAortic insufficiency/regurgitation
Mitral valveMitral valve stenosisMitral insufficiency/regurgitation
Tricuspid valveTricuspid valve stenosisTricuspid insufficiency/regurgitation
Pulmonary valvePulmonary valve stenosisPulmonary insufficiency/regurgitation


The valve condition is typically the result of a degenerative disease, congenital defect or a serious infection like endocarditis or rheumatic fever. When the heart valve is diseased, it affects the function of the heart to move blood efficiently through the body. The two types of heart valve disease:

    1. Stenosis disease: It occurs when the leaflets of a heart valve become stiff or they fuse together and prevent from opening fully. This condition causes the heart to work harder than normal and it may lead to heart attack, heart failure or other cardiac conditions. This condition can occur in all the four heart valves. Risk factors include a history of rheumatic fever, age, endocarditis or gender. Diabetes and Marfan syndrome can also cause stenosis in the mitral valve.

The four stenosis disease includes:

    1. Aortic valve stenosis (AS): It is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart such that problems result. This may occur at the aortic valve as well as above or below this level. It is the most common valve condition in the developed world that affects about 2% of people over the age of 65 years. Aortic stenosis was first described by the French physician Lazare Rivere in 1663. The death at five years for individuals having symptoms without repair is about 50% and at 10 years, it is about 90%.
    2. Mitral valve stenosis: It is a valve condition that is characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart. Almost all the cases of mitral stenosis are due to the disease in the heart secondary to the rheumatic fever and the result of the rheumatic heart disease. This is the most common valvular condition in pregnancy.
    3. Tricuspid valve stenosis: It is a valvular heart disease which results in narrowing of the orifice of the tricuspid valve of the heart. This is a relatively rare condition that causes stenosis- increases the resistance of the blood flow through the valve.
    4. Pulmonary valve stenosis: It is a heart valve disorder in which the outflow of the blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve. This results in the reduction of the flow of blood to the lungs. This valve condition accounts for 80% of the right ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
  1. Regurgitation/Insufficiency disease: Regurgitation or a leaky valve occurs when a heart valve doesn’t close properly. This causes the blood to leak back through the heart valve into the chamber instead of flowing forward through the heart or artery. When this happens, your heart needs to work harder and less blood may flow through the body. Individuals at high risk for regurgitation have a history of valve prolapse or stenosis, use ergotamine or other migraine medications, have had a past heart attack, have rheumatic fever or endocarditis or certain congenital birth defects.

    1. Aortic insufficiency/regurgitation: Aortic insufficiency (AI) is also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is leakage of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in reverse direction during the ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. This condition can occur due to the abnormalities in either the aortic valve or the aortic root.
    2. Mitral insufficiency/regurgitation: Also called a mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral incompetence or mitral regurgitation is a disorder of the heart where the heart does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood. It refers to the abnormal leaking of blood backwards from the left ventricle, through the mitral valve into the left atrium, when the left ventricle contracts, there is a regurgitation of blood back into the left atrium. This is one of the most common form of valve condition.
    3. Tricuspid insufficiency/regurgitation: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or tricuspid insufficiency (TI) refers to the failure of tricuspid valve of the heart to close properly during the systole. As a result, with each heartbeat some blood passes through the right ventricle to the right atrium, opposite to the normal direction. This condition roughly occurs in less than 1% of the people. It is usually asymptomatic and may also be a feature right sided heart failure or pulmonary hypertension.
    4. Pulmonary insufficiency/regurgitation: This is a condition in which the pulmonary valve is incompetent and allows the backflow to the right ventricle of the heart during the diastole. Since, the pulmonary insufficiency is the result of other factors in the body, any noticeable symptoms are eventually caused by an underlying medical condition rather than the regurgitation itself.
  2. Mitral Valve Prolapse

Overview: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a type of myxomatous valve disease that occurs when the valve between your heart’s left upper chamber (left atrium) and left lower chamber (left ventricle) doesn’t close properly. Other names that describe mitral valve prolapse are:

  • Floppy valve syndrome
  • Barlow’s syndrome
  • Billowing mitral valve
  • Balloon mitral valve
  • Prolapsing mitral valve syndrome
  • Myxomatous mitral valve

MVP is very common, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of the population. Women are affected twice as often as men. Mitral valve prolapse can be seen in children, teens and adults.

Symptoms: Most people with MVP have no symptoms, some people have symptoms such as:

  • Chest discomfort
  • Bursts of rapid heartbeat (palpitations)
  • Easily tired (fatigue)
  • Anxiety
  • Shortness of breath

Symptoms may not always relate to how serious your MVP is. You may have frequent symptoms, yet the diagnostic tests may show that the valve leak is not significant. These symptoms are not dangerous or life threatening and may not require treatment at all.

Diagnosis: It is usually diagnosed during a routine physical exam. Mitral valve prolapse is called as the click murmur sound because the doctor will hear a click and a murmur (abnormal blood flow through the valve).

Other diagnostic tests include:

  • Cardiac Catherization
  • Echocardiography
  • Transesophageal echocardiography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Radionuclide scans
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Stress test

Treatments for Mitral Valve Prolapse: Most people with MVP, particularly without symptoms don’t require treatment. Your doctor may suggest you to return regularly for the follow-up examination to monitor your condition, depending on its severity. However, if you have symptoms and a significant amount of blood is leaking through the mitral valve, then your doctor will recommend medications or surgery depending on the severity of your condition.

Medications: Your doctor will prescribe medications to treat mitral valve prolapse-related to chest pain, heart rhythm abnormalities and other complications. Medications include:

  • Beta blockers – These drugs help prevent irregular heartbeats by making your heart beat slowly and with less force that will reduce your blood pressure. They also help the blood vessels to relax and open up to improve your blood flow.
  • Heart rhythm medications: Your doctor will prescribe procainamide (Procanbid), flecainide (Tambocor), sotalol (Betapace) or aminodarone (Pacerone, Cordarone) to control your heart rhythm.
  • Diuretics : Diurectis or water pills may be prescribed to drain the fluid from your lungs.
  • Prescription anticoagulants (blood thinners) : Medications like heparin, warfarin and dabigatran prevent blood from clotting if you have had an irregular heart rhythms like atrial fibrillation.
  • Aspirin : Your doctor will prescribe aspirin to reduce the risk of blood clots, if you have mitral valve prolapse and a history of strokes.

Surgery: Your doctor may suggest surgical treatment, if you have severe mitral valve prolapse with or without symptoms. Severe mitral valve regurgitation can eventually cause heart failure and prevent it from pumping the blood effectively. The surgical treatment will include repairing or replacing the mitral valve. Valve repair and replacement may be performed using an open-heart surgery or a minimally invasive surgery. A minimally invasive surgery includes smaller incisions and may have less blood loss and quicker recovery than the open heart surgery.

  • Valve Repair : Mitral valve repair is a surgery to preserve your own valve. This is the preferred surgical treatment for correcting the mitral valve prolapse in most people. The surgeon can modify the original valve (valvuloplasty) to eliminate backward flow. Surgeons can also repair the valve by reconnecting the valve leaflets or removing the excess valve tissue so that the leaflets can close tightly. Sometimes, repairing the valve involves tightening or replacing the annulus called as annuloplasty. It is important to ensure that your surgeon is experienced in performing the mitral valve repair.
  • Valve Replacement Surgery : Your surgeon will perform valve replacement is the valve repair isn’t possible. During valve replacement surgery, the damaged mitral valve is replaced with an artificial (prosthetic) valve, which are either mechanical or tissue valves.
Mitral Valve Prolapse Treatment in India:

India has emerged as a high tech medical destination for many foreign patients considering treatments for mitral valve prolapse. Indian surgeons and cardiologists have had their training from the leading medical centers in the US and UK. Indian hospitals use the latest technology for performing heart surgeries. Also, these treatments and surgeries are available at economical prices compared to that in the western countries. The cost for mitral valve repair in the US can be anywhere between $40,000 to $200,000 while the same procedure can be done in India for only $10,000. Indian medical tourism hospitals and surgery centers in India are accredited by Joint Commission International (JCI), thereby ensures the quality of medical treatment in India. It is advised to exercise caution while choosing an Indian hospital for the mitral valve prolapse treatment by checking who is performing the surgery, the experience of the surgeon as well as the credentials of the hospital and cardiac surgeon in India.

  • How do I make an appointment with Best Cardiac Surgeon for Valve Repair or Replacement Surgery in India?
    • All you have to do is send us your medical report and be rest assured. We will choose the best suitable surgeon for you, after consulting the experts.


  • How often do my heart valves open and close?
    • The average human heart beats 100,000 times per day. Over the life of an average 70-year-old, that means over 2.5 billion beats.


  • How is mitral valve prolapse (MVP) detected?
    • Because most patients with MVP do not experience symptoms, a murmur may be detected during a routine physical examination when a healthcare provider uses a stethoscope to listen to the heart.


  • Does mitral valve prolapse need to be treated?
    • In many instances, having MVP will not impact your health and requires no treatment. Talk with your healthcare provider about how best to prevent complications from MVP based on your level of risk. If you are prescribed medication, take it as directed.


  • Should I have a mechanical valve or a tissue valve?
    • You should discuss this question with your doctor as there are advantages and disadvantages to both. The key is to choose the valve that best fits your lifestyle and your goals. A mechanical valve may last longer than a tissue valve (which can wear out over time). However, patients with mechanical valves are required to be on anticoagulants (blood thinners) for life. Blood thinners are needed with mechanical valves to reduce the risk of clot formation. If these clots are big enough, they could cause adverse events like strokes. Being on blood thinners may require you to limit certain physical activities in order to reduce the risk of bleeding events. You may also need to modify your diet and make other lifestyle changes. It is important to discuss these issues with your doctor. Tissue valves do not require you to be on blood thinners for the rest of your life. However, they can wear out over time, which may require a re-operation.


  • How long does a replaced heart valve last?
    • Tissue valves wear out slowly, much like natural valves. Your age and health play a large part in how long your valve will last. Usually, they 7 to 15 years, but can last more than 20 years. The amount of time depends on many complex patient factors that should be discussed with your doctor.


  • Should I expect an immediate improvement in my health following heart valve repair or replacement surgery?
    • The results of valve repair or replacement surgery vary for each individual. Most individuals feel relief from symptoms immediately, while other patients begin to notice an improvement in their symptoms in the weeks following surgery. Your doctor can help you to evaluate your progress and physical health following valve repair or replacement surgery.


  • How will I get an Indian Medical Visa?
    • To know about the procedure of getting an Indian Medical Visa, please go to our website where you will find all the details regarding the initial procedure. You can also send us a query regarding the same.


  • How much can I really save?
    • The expenses involved in Valve replacement surgery in India are nearly 25% of that in the majority of Western countries. So that means a lot of savings!


If you are really seeking treatments for the Valve Conditions in India, kindly fill up the form for a free consultation with our expert cardiologists. You will be provided with thorough analysis and suggestions regarding the treatments for Vavle Conditions you are seeking for.
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