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Affordable Coronary Angiography test in India is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray image is taken to visualize the inside of blood vessles and organs of the body. Its name comes from the Greek words angeion meaning vessel, and graphein i.e. to write or record. The X-ray film or image of the blood vessels is called anangiograph, or more commonly, an angiogram.
In the year 1927 Portuguese physician, neurologist and Nobel Prize laureate Egas Moniz developed a technique of contrasted x-ray cerebral angiography to diagnose nervous diseases, such as tumors and arteriovenous malformations. He is usually recognised as one of the pioneers in this field. With the introduction of the Seldinger technique in 1953, the procedure became considerably safer as no sharp introductory devices needed to remain inside the vascular lumen.
Depending on the type of angiogram, access to the blood vessels is gained most commonly through the Femoral artery, to look at the left side of the heart and the arterial system or the Jugular or Femoral vein, to look at the right side of the heart and the venous system. Using a system of Guide wires and Catheters, a type of Contrast agent (which shows up by absorbing the x-rays), is added to the blood to make it visible on the x-ray images.
The X-ray images taken may either be still images, displayed on an image intensifier or film, or motion images. For all structures except the heart, the images are usually taken using a technique called Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). Images in this case are usually taken at 2 – 3 frames per second, which allows the radiologist to evaluate the flow of the blood through a vessel or vessels. This technique subtracts the bones and other organs so only the vessels filled with contrast agent can be seen. The heart images are taken at 15-30 frames per second, not using a subtraction technique. Because DSA requires the patient to remain motionless, it cannot be used on the heart. Both these techniques enable the radiologist or cardiologist to see stenoses (blockages or narrowings) inside the vessel which may be inhibiting the flow of blood and causing pain.
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One of most common angiograms performed is to visualize the blood in the coronary arteries. A long, thin, flexible tube called a catheter is used to administer the x-ray contrast agent at the desired area to be visualized. The catheter is threaded into an artery in the groin or forearm, and the tip is advanced through the arterial system into one of the two major coronary arteries. X-ray images of the transient hiradiocontrast distribution within the blood flowing within the coronary arteries allows visualization of the size of the artery openings. Presence or absence of atherosclerosis or atheroma within the walls of the arteries cannot be clearly determined. See coronary catheterization for more detail.
Angiography is also commonly performed to identify vessel narrowing in patients with leg claudication or cramps, caused by reduced blood flow down the legs and to the feet; in patients with renal stenosis (which commonly causes high blood pressure) and can be used in the head to find and repair stroke. These are all done routinely through the femoral artery, but can also be performed through the brachial or axillary (arm) artery. Any stenoses found may be treated by the use of Angioplasty.
Other angiographic uses include the diagnosis of retinal vascular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.
The term angiography, or angeiography, was originally used of a description of the weights, measures, vessels, etc. used by several nations.
Due to the advancement in medical imaging, it is now possible to perform almost all Angiograms through a CT scanner, known as Computed tomography angiography. This is better for the patient as it is less invasive with fewer associated risks.
Intravenous digital subtraction angiography
Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) is a form of angiography test in India which was first developed in the late 1970s.
IV-DSA uses a computer technique which compares an x-ray image of a region of the body before and after radiopaque iodine based dye has been injected intravenously into the body. Tissues and blood vessels on the first image are digitally subtracted from the second image, leaving a clear picture of the artery which can then be studied independently and in isolation from the rest of the body.
Some studies have indicated that IV-DSA is not suitable for patients with diabetes or renal insufficiency because the dye load is significantly higher than is used in arteriography. However, IV-DSA has been used successfully to study the vessels of the brain and heart and has helped detect carotid artery obstruction and to map patterns of cerebral blood flow. It also helps detect and diagnose lesions in the carotid arteries which is a potential cause of strokes.
IV-DSA has also been useful in assessing patients prior to surgery and after coronary artery bypass surgery and some transplant operations.
Cardiac institutes and hospitals in India are highly qualified and experienced to perform a variety of heart treatments. Angiography procedure in India is performed with the help of advanced infrastructure. Also the Angiography test cost in India is considerably lesser than most western nations. The cost of angiography in India is well within the budget of the global patients.
Contact us to know the angiography cost in Fortis, Max Hospital and Medanta. Check out the angiography cost in Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi on our website.
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