Heart Valve Repair India

India Cardiac Surgery Site is associated with experienced cardiologists to deliver the perfect treatment and recuperative plan. Before the surgery, we will educate the patient with every fact involved in surgery and maintain the transparency in procedure, facilities and the related costs. We provide quality services and also assists with arrangements by keeping the concerns of the international patients in mind, providing you the utmost care and professionalism.

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Valve Repair/Replacement

Blood is pumped through your heart in only one direction. Heart valves play a key role in this one-way blood flow, opening and closing with each heartbeat. Pressure changes on either side of the valves cause them to open their flap-like “doors” (called cusps or leaflets) at just the right time, then close tightly to prevent a backflow of blood.

There are 4 valves in the heart:

  • Tricuspid valve
  • Pulmonary valve
  • Mitral valve
  • Aortic valve

Diastole: blood is pumped from the atria into the ventricles.

Systole: Blood is pumped out of the ventricles to the lungs and the body.

In the United States, surgeons perform about 99,000 heart valve operations each year. Nearly all of these operations are done to repair or replace the mitral or aortic valves. These valves are on the left side of the heart, which works harder than the right. They control the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the rest of the body.

Valve Disease

Every time your heart beats, blood flows into, through, and out of your heart. In fact, your heart moves about 100 gallons (379 liters) of blood through your body every hour.

Blood is pumped through your heart in only one direction. Heart valves play key roles in this one-way blood flow, opening and closing with each heartbeat. Pressure changes behind and in front of the valves allow them to open their flap-like “doors” (called cusps or leaflets) at just the right time, then close them tightly to prevent a backflow of blood.

Blood without oxygen returns from the body and flows into the heart’s upper-right chamber (the right atrium). From there, it is forced through the tricuspid valve into the lower-right chamber (the right ventricle). The right ventricle pumps the blood through the pulmonary valve and into the lungs. While in the lungs, the blood picks up oxygen. As the right ventricle is preparing to push blood through the pulmonary valve, the tricuspid valve closes to stop blood from flowing back into the right atrium.

Oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs flows into the upper-left chamber (the left atrium). This blood is forced through the mitral valve into the lower-left chamber (the left ventricle)—with the mitral valve sealing off to stop the backflow of blood. At the same time that the right ventricle is pumping the blood without oxygen into the lungs, the left ventricle is pushing the blood with oxygen through the aortic valve and on to all of the body’s organs.

Two types of problems can disrupt blood flow through the valves: regurgitation or stenosis.

Regurgitation is also called insufficiency or incompetence. Regurgitation happens when a valve doesn’t close properly and blood leaks backward instead of moving in the proper one-way flow. If too much blood flows backward, only a small amount can travel forward to your body’s organs. Your heart tries to make up for this by working harder, but with time your heart will become enlarged (dilated) and less able to pump blood through your body.

Stenosis happens when the leaflets do not open wide enough and only a small amount of blood can flow through the valve. Stenosis happens when the leaflets thicken, stiffen, or fuse together. Because of the narrowed valve, your heart must work harder to move blood through your body.

Check out the Patient Testimonial, where the patient shares about their success stories from treatments through India Cardiac Surgery Consultants.

What causes valve disease?

Before doctors started giving their patients antibiotics, rheumatic fever was the single biggest cause of valve disease. Today, the cause of valve disease is most likely linked to one of the following:

  • A weakening of the valve tissue caused by energy changes in the body. This is called myxomatous degeneration. It happens most often in elderly patients and commonly affects the mitral valve.
  • A buildup of calcium on the aortic or mitral valves, which causes the valves to thicken. This is called calcific degeneration.
  • An irregularly shaped aortic valve or a narrowed mitral valve. This is usually a congenital defect, which means that most people who have it were born with it.
  • Use of the anti-obesity medicines fen-phen and Redux, which were removed from the market after being linked to heart valve disease.
  • An infection in the lining of the heart’s walls and valves (the endocardium). This is called infective endocarditis.
  • Coronary artery disease.
  • Heart attack.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms depend on the patient and the type and severity of valve disease. Some patients have no symptoms at all. In other cases, valve disease may take its toll over many years. In time, patients may develop congestive heart failure. Also, valve disease may lead to heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), and blood clots.

Diseases of the Mitral Valve

Diseases of the heart valves are grouped according to which valve or valves are involved and the amount of blood flow that is disrupted by the problem. The most common and serious valve problems happen in the mitral and aortic valves. Diseases of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves are fairly rare.

The mitral valve regulates the flow of blood from the upper-left chamber (the left atrium) to the lower-left chamber (the left ventricle).

Here we will discuss 3 diseases of the mitral valve: mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis.

  1. Mitral Valve Prolapse

The mitral valve regulates the flow of blood from the upper-left chamber (the left atrium) to the lower-left chamber (the left ventricle). Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) means that one or both of the valve flaps (called cusps or leaflets) are enlarged, and the flaps’ supporting muscles are too long. Instead of closing evenly, one or both of the flaps collapse or bulge into the left atrium. MVP is often called click-murmur syndrome because when the valve does not close properly, it makes a clicking sound and then a murmur.

What causes MVP?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is among the most common heart conditions, but it remains something of a puzzle. Although MVP affects about 2% of the population, the cause is unknown. MVP often occurs in people who have no other heart problems, and the condition may be inherited.

The mitral valve is located in the heart between the upper-left chamber (the left atrium) and the lower-left chamber (the left ventricle). The mitral valve consists of two flaps called leaflets.

Normally, the leaflets open and shut in coordinated fashion to allow blood to flow in one direction—from the atrium to the ventricle. The left ventricle is the heart’s main pumping chamber and pushes oxygen-rich blood into the arteries, which carry the blood throughout the body.

But in patients with MVP, one or both of the leaflets are enlarged, and the leaflets’ supporting muscles are too long. Instead of closing evenly, one or both of the leaflets collapse or bulge into the atrium, sometimes allowing small amounts of blood to flow back into the atrium. By listening to your heart with a stethoscope, your doctor may hear a “clicking” sound caused by the flapping of the leaflets.

Some forms of MVP have been associated with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue condition where patients have long bones and very flexible joints. Most people with MVP are small-framed or have minor chest wall deformities, scoliosis, or other skeletal disorders.

What are the symptoms?

Most people with MVP do not have symptoms. When symptoms do happen, they may include

  • Shortness of breath, especially when lying down.
  • Chest pain.
  • Extreme fatigue.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Trouble breathing after exercise.
  • Rapid heartbeat or tachycardia (this is rare).

Most of the time, MVP is not a serious condition. Some patients say they feel palpitations (like their heart is skipping a beat) or sharp chest pain. If you have MVP, you should talk to your doctor about taking antibiotic medicine before dental procedures or general surgery, especially if you have mitral regurgitation or thickened valve leaflets. This medicine will prevent infection of the valve.

What are the risks of MVP?

Sometimes, MVP leads to a condition known as mitral regurgitation or mitral insufficiency. This means a large amount of blood is leaking backward through the defective valve. Mitral regurgitation can lead to the thickening or enlargement of the heart wall, caused by the extra pumping the heart must do to make up for the backflow of blood. It sometimes causes people to feel tired or short of breath. Mitral regurgitation can usually be treated with medicines, but some people need surgery to repair or replace the defective valve.

How is MVP treated?

Most of the time, MVP is not a serious condition, even though some patients report palpitations or sharp chest pains. Most patients do not need treatment. If you have MVP, you should talk to your doctor about taking antibiotics before dental procedures or general surgery, especially if you have mitral regurgitation or thickened valve leaflets. Antibiotics will prevent infection of the valve.

MVP should not stop a person from living a productive life, but it should be monitored regularly by a doctor.

   2. Mitral Regurgitation

Mitral regurgitation is also called mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence. It happens when the mitral valve allows a backflow of blood into the heart’s upper-left chamber (the left atrium). Mitral regurgitation may take years to reveal itself. But, if it goes on long enough, it can cause a buildup of pressure in the lungs or cause the heart to enlarge. In time, this will lead to symptoms.

What causes mitral regurgitation?

Mitral regurgitation is usually caused by conditions that weaken or damage the valve. The most common causes of mitral regurgitation in adults are listed below.

  • Valve damage from rheumatic fever during childhood.
  • Injury to the mitral valve after a heart attack.
  • Injury to the mitral valve from an infection of the heart’s inner lining (called infective endocarditis).

What are the symptoms?

In most cases, symptoms come on slowly. They may include

  • Heart palpitations (the feeling that the heart has skipped a beat).
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Fast breathing.
  • Chest pain.
  • Coughing
  • Fatigue

If you have mitral regurgitation, you should talk to your doctor about taking antibiotic medicine before dental procedures or general surgery. The medicine will prevent infection of the valve. Mitral regurgitation may also lead to heart failure, stroke, irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), and blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary emboli).

3. Mitral Stenosis

Mitral stenosis is a narrowing or blockage of the mitral valve. The narrowed valve causes blood to backup in the heart’s upper-left chamber (the left atrium) instead of flowing into the lower-left chamber (the left ventricle). Most adults with mitral stenosis usually had an infection called rheumatic fever when they were younger. Mitral stenosis may also be associated with aging and a buildup of calcium on the ring around the valve where the leaflet and heart muscle meet. Cases of mitral stenosis are fewer in developed countries because of the medicines used to fight the infections that lead to rheumatic fever.

What causes mitral stenosis?

Mitral stenosis is usually caused by rheumatic fever, but it can be caused by any condition that causes narrowing of the mitral valve. The condition is rarely passed down through family members.

What are the symptoms?

Most people with mitral stenosis have no symptoms. When symptoms do happen, they may get worse with exercise or any activity that increases your heart rate. These may include

  • Trouble breathing at night or after exercise.
  • Coughing, which sometimes produces a pinkish, blood-tinged sputum.
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain that gets worse with activity and goes away with rest.
  • Frequent respiratory infections such as bronchitis.
  • Heart palpitations (the feeling that the heart has skipped a beat).
  • Swelling (edema) of the feet and ankles.
  • A hoarse or husky-sounding voice.

Symptoms may begin with an episode of atrial fibrillation. Pregnancy, a respiratory infection, endocarditis, or other cardiac conditions may also cause symptoms. Mitral stenosis may eventually lead to heart failure, stroke, or blood clots to various parts of the body.

Diseases of the Aortic Valve

Diseases of the heart valves are grouped according to which valve or valves are involved and the amount of blood flow that is disrupted by the problem. The most common and serious valve problems happen in the mitral and aortic valves. Diseases of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves are fairly rare.

The aortic valve regulates the blood flow from the heart’s lower-left chamber (the left ventricle) into the aorta. The aorta is the main vessel that supplies blood to the rest of the body.

Here we will discuss 2 diseases of the aortic valve: aortic regurgitation and aortic stenosis.

  1. Aortic regurgitation

Aortic regurgitation is also called aortic insufficiency or aortic incompetence. It is a condition in which blood flows backward from a widened or weakened aortic valve into the heart’s lower chamber (the left ventricle). The most serious form of aortic regurgitation is caused by an infection that leaves holes in the valve leaflets. Symptoms of aortic regurgitation may not appear for years. When symptoms do appear, it is because the left ventricle must work harder to make up for the backflow of blood. The ventricle eventually gets larger, causing a backup of fluid.

What causes aortic regurgitation?

Aortic regurgitation is most common in men between the ages of 30 and 60. In adults, the most common cause of severe aortic regurgitation is rheumatic fever. Mild cases are often caused by a bicuspid aortic valve (where the valve has 2 leaflets instead of 3) and severe high blood pressure (a diastolic pressure more than 110 mm Hg). Other causes, though rare, may include

  • Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue condition where patients have long bones and very flexible joints.
  • Endocarditis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis of the spine)
  • Dissecting aortic aneurysm.
  • Aortic stenosis, a narrowing of the aortic valve that often causes some degree of aortic regurgitation.

What are the symptoms?

Like other valve defects, symptoms may not appear for years. When they do appear, they can come on slowly or suddenly. Symptoms begin because the left ventricle has to work harder. In time, the ventricle gets larger and fluid backs up. Symptoms may include

  • Shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain that gets worse with exercise and goes away with rest.
  • Swelling in the ankles.
  • Fatigue
  • Fast or fluttering pulse.

Severe cases can lead to heart failure. In most of these cases, the aortic valve will eventually need to be replaced to fix the backflow of blood into the left ventricle.

  2. Aortic Stenosis

Aortic stenosis is a narrowing or blockage of the aortic valve. This valve regulates the blood flow from the heart’s lower-left chamber (the left ventricle) into the aorta. The aorta is the main blood supplier to the rest of the body. Aortic stenosis happens when the valve leaflets become coated with deposits. The deposits change the shape of the leaflets and reduce blood flow through the valve. The left ventricle has to work harder to make up for the reduced blood flow. Over time, the extra work can weaken the heart muscle.

What causes aortic stenosis?

Aortic stenosis is more common among men. Congenital defects (those you are born with) and rheumatic fever are the main causes of aortic stenosis in people under 50. In some cases, people are born with a bicuspid aortic valve, meaning the valve has 2 leaflets instead of 3. This may also cause aortic stenosis. In elderly patients, calcium deposits and the growth of fibrous tissue on the aortic valve can distort the leaflets or cause them to fuse together. This is called calcification, and it can make the different leaflets almost look like a single leaflet. Other causes include a history of other valve diseases, coronary artery disease, or a heart murmur.

What are the symptoms?

People with aortic stenosis may not have symptoms for years. When symptoms do appear, they may include

  • Fainting, especially during exercise.
  • Angina-like chest pain that gets worse with exercise and goes away with rest.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Heart palpitations (the feeling that the heart has skipped a beat).
  • Coughing

Patients who have aortic stenosis are advised not to exercise too hard. Those with mild aortic stenosis may not need further treatment beyond regular doctors visits. Surgery to replace the valve is the treatment of choice for people with severe aortic stenosis. Check out more information about the Best heart valve surgeons in india and the best heart valve surgery hospitals in india on our website. Get in touch with us to know the Heart Valve Repair Surgery Cost in India.

List of The Top 20 Surgeons Performing Heart Valve Repair Surgery In India

  • DR RAJU VYAS
  • DR MANOJ P NAIR
  • DR Y K MISHRA
  • DR BHABA NANDA DAS
  • DR. T. S. KLER
  • DR. PAWAN ZUTSHI
  • DR. RITESH SANGURI
  • DR. SATBIR SINGH
  • DR. SHILPI MOHAN
  • DR. NARESH TREHAN
  • DR. RAJESH SHARMA
  • DR. ALI ZAMIR KHAN
  • DR NANDKISHORE KAPADIA
  • DR AMAR NATH GHOSH
  • DR SARAJIT KUMAR DAS
  • DR K M MANDANA
  • DR MADAN KUMAR K
  • DR K R BALAKRISNAN
  • DR BASHI V VELAYUDHAN
  • DR Z S MEHARWAL

 

Which Are The 20 Best Recommended Hospitals For Heart Valve Repair Surgery?

  • BLK SUPER SPECIALITY HOSPITAL, NEW DELHI
  • GLOBAL HOSPITAL,CHENNAI
  • SHARDA HOSPITAL,DELHI
  • PARAS HOSPITAL, GURGAON
  • NANAVATI HOSPITAL,MUMBAI
  • MANIPAL HOSPITAL,BANGALORE
  • THE WOCKHARDT HEART INSTITUTE, MUMBAI
  • NARAYANA HOSPITAL,BANGALORE.
  • RUBY HALL, PUNE
  • CONTINENTAL INSTITUTE OF CARDIOVASCULAR SCIENCES, HYDERABAD
  • FORTIS HOSPITAL, KOLKATA
  • FORTIS ESCORTS HOSPITAL, NEW DELHI
  • ASIAN HEART INSTITUTE,MUMBAI
  • APOLLO HOSPITAL,CHENNAI
  • FORTIS ESCORTS HOSPITAL, BANGALORE
  • ARTEMIS HOSPITAL, GURGAON
  • MEDANTA HOSPITAL, NEW DELHI
  • MAX SUPER SPCIALITY HOSPITAL, NEW DELHI
  • FORTIS MEMORIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE GURGAON.
  • INDRAPRASTHA APOLLO HOSPITAL, NEW DELHI

 

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